Rapid expansion of social protection around the world needs a renewed debate around targeting versus universalism. Universal approach recommends that all citizens of a country receive the same state-provided benefits. This school of thought focuses on the fact that social unity results from a uniform provision of benefits and questions targeting from human rights, moral values and equity angles. In contrast, targeting is an effort to identify and ensure the resources of social protection programmes are directed to those most in need, for an efficient use of available resources. The choice of targeting comes from dissatisfaction with the poor results of universal subsidies. Social assistance is an important tool to prevent and reduce poverty, inequality, social exclusion and social insecurity and to promote equal opportunity and gender and racial equality. Should social protection be universal? What are the limits to universal social protection? How can a universal social protection system be sustainable? How can we apply social protection floors? Is it worth considering targeting approaches? Why should we consider targeting methods? Can targeting measures and universal programmes work together? What are the implications for developing and poor countries? These are the questions that were explored and discussed at the 2018 annual conference. The workshop was organized by the Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity and Environment and Sustainable Development in collaboration with the University of Mauritius, SASPEN and FES and took place at Le Sirius, Labourdonnais Waterfront hotel, Caudan, Mauritius.